BRL-CAD is a powerful constructive solid geometry solid modeling system that includes an interactive geometry editor, ray-tracing support for rendering and geometric analysis, path-tracing for realistic image synthesis, network distributed framebuffer support, and image and signal-processing tools.
Dia is a program for creating diagrams of all kinds. The current version can do UML class diagrams, Entity-Relationship modeling, network diagrams, and much more. The engine is very flexible and dynamically loads diagram-types from disk. It stores diagrams in an XML format, but can read and write a number of different formats.
Gutenprint (formerly Gimp-Print) is a collection of printer drivers for Unix/Linux that currently supports over 1400 printers. It emphasizes quality and flexibility, offering a wide variety of options to meet most printing needs. It includes a CUPS driver, an IJS-based Ghostscript driver, Foomatic data, an enhanced Print plugin for The GIMP, and other printer maintenance utilities. It can be used equally well for fast printing of text or critical printing of high quality graphics and photographs.
graphviz is a set of graph drawing tools and libraries. It supports hierarchical and mass-spring drawings; although the tools are scalable, their emphasis is on making very good drawings of reasonably-sized graphs. Package components include batch layout filters and interactive editors for X11, Java, and a TCL/tk extension. The batch filters can be configured as a web visualization service (using GIF and click-maps). Typical applications include display of finite state machines, software diagrams, database schemas, and communication networks.
GRASS (the Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) is a software raster- and vector-based GIS (Geographic Information System), image processing system, graphics production system, and spatial modeling system. It contains many modules for raster data manipulation, vector data manipulation, rendering images on the monitor or paper, multispectral image geocoding and processing, point data management and general data management. It also has tools for interfacing with digitizers, scanners, and the PostgreSQL, DBF, and ODBC connected databases. GRASS operates on all common operating systems.
Ilib is an image manipulation library for developers. It's capable of reading and writing images (PPM/PGM, PNG, JPEG, GIF, XPM, BMP) and many drawing functions including drawing lines and text using any BDF (X11) font. It's great for generating GIFs/PNGs from a CGI or generating graphs. Ilib includes sample applications for generating graphs for HTTP access.log files and QuakeWorld server frag log files and a tool for creating image indices from a group of images.
Jmol is a Free, Open Source molecule viewer and editor. It is a collaboratively developed visualization and measurement tool for chemical scientists. Jmol is an active project, and there are new features being added to it on a daily basis. Users are encouraged to modify it to fit their needs and to contribute their changes to the project.